# falsity

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**implication**— implicational, adj. /im pli kay sheuhn/, n. 1. something implied or suggested as naturally to be inferred or understood: to resent an implication of dishonesty. 2. the act of implying: His implication of immediate changes surprised us. 3. the… …102

**oath**— /ohth/, n., pl. oaths /ohdhz, ohths/. 1. a solemn appeal to a deity, or to some revered person or thing, to witness one s determination to speak the truth, to keep a promise, etc.: to testify upon oath. 2. a statement or promise strengthened by… …103

**opposition**— oppositional, oppositionary, adj. oppositionless, adj. /op euh zish euhn/, n. 1. the action of opposing, resisting, or combating. 2. antagonism or hostility. 3. a person or group of people opposing, criticizing, or protesting something, someone,… …104

**predicate calculus**— Logic. See functional calculus. Also called predicate logic. [1945 50] * * * Part of modern symbolic logic which systematically exhibits the logical relations between propositions involving quantifiers such as all and some. The predicate calculus …105

**verifiability principle**— Logical Positivism. the doctrine that if a nonanalytic statement is to be cognitively meaningful it must be empirically verifiable. [1965 70] * * * Criterion of meaningfulness associated with logical positivism and the Vienna Circle. Moritz… …106

**modal logic**— Formal systems incorporating modalities such as necessity, possibility, impossibility, contingency, strict implication, and certain other closely related concepts. The most straightforward way of constructing a modal logic is to add to some… …107

**thought, laws of**— Traditionally, the three fundamental laws of logic: (1) the law of contradiction, (2) the law of excluded middle (or third), and (3) the principle of identity. That is, (1) for all propositions p, it is impossible for both p and not p to be true… …108

**logical relation**— ▪ logic those relations between the elements of discourse or thought that constitute its rationality, in the sense either of (1) reasonableness or (2) intelligibility. A statement may be perfectly intelligible without being based upon any… …109

**Galileo Galilei**— Galileo Galilei † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Galileo Galilei Generally called GALILEO. Born at Pisa, 15 February, 1564; died 8 January, 1642. His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family of straitened fortune, and had… …110

**counterfeit**— coun·ter·feit 1 / kau̇n tər ˌfit/ adj [Middle French contrefait, past participle of contrefaire to imitate, draw, paint, from contre counter + faire to make]: made in imitation of a genuine article (as a document) without authorization and esp.… …